Why is a bee sting allergy dangerous?
PREVALENCE OF THIS TYPE OF ALLERGY
According to statistics, up to 4% of the Ukrainian population suffers from allergies to stinging insects, especially bees. If for a healthy person a sting by such insects is just an unpleasant incident, then for those who have allergies it is a real tragedy.
WHAT IS THE REACTION TO BEE BITS?
Reactions to honey insect bites vary. They can be local or systemic in nature, as well as affect individual organs and tissues. In nature, such an accumulation of bees is rare, the stings of which have serious consequences. And the allergy is not necessarily the bee venom. It can be caused by honey and bee products (bee bread, pollen). Most often, chronic allergic diseases caused by the latter occur in the production of honey. A prime example is chronic rhinitis, conjunctivitis or asthma in beekeepers. And insect stings are more often observed in apiaries and near them.
However, the reactions to bee venom themselves are not always an allergy. After all, stinging, the insect introduces poison into our body. Therefore, first of all, there is a poisoning with substances that the bee introduces during a sting.
And with a moderate reaction to poison, a person will feel the following symptoms:
· A sharp, burning pain
· The formation of a red bump at the point of introduction of the sting;
· Slight swelling around the bite.
For some people, the swelling goes away within 24 hours. For others, the redness will be stronger and the swelling will increase. But, all the same, in 5-10 days both will pass.
ALLERGIC REACTION TO A BEE BITE
Symptoms of an allergic reaction to a bee sting can be similar to that of toxic insect venom. Sometimes the area of reaction to a lesion may increase. And then the use of antihistamines cannot be avoided.
But bee stings are among the most common factors in anaphylactic reactions. This is a severe systemic reaction that occurs in the body in response to an allergen. With an anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock can occur, which is life-threatening and has the following characteristics:
· Skin reactions in the form of urticaria, redness or, conversely, pallor of the skin;
· Swelling of the tongue and throat;
· Weak or rapid pulse;
• nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
• loss of consciousness.
It should be noted: people who have at least once experienced the above reactions are highly likely to get anaphylaxis again with a second bite. Therefore, having experienced anaphylaxis, even if you called an ambulance, it is very important to see an allergist. He will prescribe the appropriate treatment and make a plan for your next steps.
TREATMENT OF ALLERGY TO BEES POISON
As mentioned, mild allergic reactions are not life threatening. You need to be on guard only when they go into a reaction like angioedema (Quincke’s edema), and then into anaphylactic shock.
After a bite, the following measures must be taken:
· Remove the sting;
· Apply cold to the site of the bite;
· Take antihistamines in the form of tablets or syrup.
If an anaphylactic reaction develops rapidly, call an ambulance immediately.
THE BEES THAT MAKE THE MOST
As a rule, insects sting only for self-defense. She provokes 1-2 bites. And then only if the person moves the hive or swarm.
However, an unpleasant reaction will be even when a bee has bitten you, having flown into your mouth. This often happens if a person swallows an insect along with a piece of sweet food or while drinking a sweet drink.
Tongue tissues are soft, they do not have an additional dense barrier. The kind that the skin has. Therefore, the poison spreads easily in this tissue, causing edema. And also fear. As a bee, which is frightened by an unknown environment and tries to sting several times, so also a person.
But there is a category of bees that sting in groups. These are African honey plants. If you fall out of favor with them, you can get more than 10 bites, which will entail a strong toxic reaction. It is expressed in the following symptoms:
· Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
· Severe headache
• loss of consciousness.
You need to remove the poison as quickly as possible, otherwise the victim will face inevitable death.
WHEN IS MEDICAL INTERVENTION REQUIRED?
In most cases, bee stings can be treated at home using traditional methods.
It is necessary to call an ambulance in such cases:
· When you see at least one of the symptoms of anaphylaxis;
· If earlier targeted injection of epinephrine;
· Symptoms persist for more than 10 days;
· You were attacked by a whole swarm of bees;
· If after the bee stings in the mouth, swelling developed, which makes it difficult to breathe.
TO PREVENT BEE STRENGTH, FOLLOW THE FOLLOWING RULES
· If you are sensitive to bee venom, do not practice beekeeping, even if it was your favorite hobby;
· If there was a negative reaction to a bite, be sure to consult a doctor
· Do not drink sugary drinks outside if there is a bee hive nearby;
· If you are on a picnic – choose wide glasses to see the bee;
· Inspect dishes and straws before drinking from them;
· Close food bowls and garbage cans tightly;
· Take away trash after yourself;
· Wear mostly closed shoes when walking;
· Give preference to pastel colors in clothes, as bright colors attract bees;
· Forget about sundresses and loose-fitting shorts, they can squeeze the bee between the skin and fabric;
· When traveling in a car, close the windows;
· When mowing the lawn or trimming vegetation near the hives, be careful not to disturb the bees;
· Remain calm and do not make sudden movements when several insects are flying around you;
· When meeting with a bee swarm, close your mouth and nose and immediately take cover in a closed room or in a vehicle.