Dust mite allergy: symptoms, prevention, treatment
WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF DUST ALLERGY?
House dust allergy was known as early as the 17th century. Even then, the Flemish physician John Baptista was able to cure the monk, who began to have shortness of breath with every sweeping. It was he who determined that allergies are caused not so much by dust as by microscopic parasites that live in it.
After 300 years, this theory was officially confirmed by scientists from the Netherlands, who experimentally proved the link between dust allergy and dust mites.
DIAGNOSTICS OF ALLERGY TO DUST MITE
You will immediately understand that you are allergic to dust if you feel the following symptoms while cleaning the apartment:
- itching, lacrimation,
- redness of the eyes
- runny nose and sneezing;
- nasal congestion,
- itchy nose, mouth, or throat
- increased pressure;
- swelling of the face;
- bruises under the eyes.
If allergies trigger asthma, you will have trouble breathing. Namely:
- chest tightness or pain;
- wheezing and whistling when breathing;
- sleep problems caused by difficulty breathing or coughing.
To make sure that dust mites are the cause of your allergies, the following tests need to be done:
Skin prick test
During this examination, a small amount of allergens, including dust mite extract, are pricked onto the skin. If the test is positive, a red itchy blister will appear where the mite allergen test was. After 30 minutes, it will disappear and the skin will return to its normal appearance.
Some people cannot get a skin test because they are taking medications that can interfere with the results. Then, as an alternative, as a rule, a blood test is prescribed. It can detect a person’s sensitization to common allergens, including dust mites. It is also of high quality and can accurately determine if you are hypersensitive to an allergen.
DUST MITE SENSITIVITY PREVENTION
The basic rule in dealing with allergies is to avoid contact with the allergen . Therefore, dust must be removed not only in the room where the person who suffers from allergies lives, but throughout the house. To this end, the following rules will have to be followed:
- immediately after cleaning, get rid of the vacuum cleaner bags. after all, this is the favorite place of dust mites;
- refuse fur products;
- it is better to replace curtains with blinds;
- it is better to replace furniture made of fabric with leather;
- keep books behind glass;
- refuse carpets and carpet;
- forget about fluff. choose only a bed with synthetic fillers;
- do not keep large flowerpots in the house that will collect dust.
The place where you sleep should be cool. After all, dust mites love warm and dry air.
The rules for caring for the mattress and pillows will be as follows:
- ventilate them in the fresh air twice a week;
- Use special cleaning products for bedding and laundry detergents that destroy mites;
- you need to wash bed linen as often as possible;
- cover mattresses and pillows with special covers that are zipped, after pretreating them with special anti-allergenic agents.
Patients who are allergic to dust mites may also be allergic to seafood. Therefore, it is better to refuse them too. Especially if a molecular test has shown such cross-reactivity. After all, they are, as it is correct, available for a large number of allergens at the same time.
TREATMENT OF DUST MITE ALLERGIES
But, despite all the efforts, it is simply impossible to completely get rid of the dust. Therefore, you cannot do without consulting an allergist. Only he can prescribe medical treatment. Namely:
Antihistamines that can relieve nasal symptoms. They will relieve itching, sneezing and runny nose. For starters, you can use over-the-counter pills, as well as sprays with dimethindene maleate;
Nasal spray corticosteroids , which will reduce inflammation and help control seasonal allergy symptoms
Anti-inflammatories that reduce tissue swelling and make it easier to breathe through the nose.
But the best method of treatment is allergen-specific (ASIT) or allergenic immunotherapy (AIT) . This method is currently available in Ukraine. Including – domestic and imported drug. AIT involves a series of injections with a low dose of dust mite protein, which are injected 1-2 times during the week. The dose is gradually increased, and after 3-5 years the immune system adapts to the stimulus.